The Influence of Psychosocial Factors on Bhutanese High School Students


  • Neelima Chhetri
  • Pornpat Hengudomsub
  • Wannee Deoisres


Abstract Objective: To identify depression level and examine the influence of psychosocial factors on depression in Bhutanese high school students. Methods: Data were collected from 316 students in grades 9 - 12 at a higher secondary school, Sarpang District in Bhutan selected through multi-stage random sampling. Self-administered questionnaires including 1) demographic information, 2) Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, 3) Rumination Response Scale, 4) Type D Personality Scale, 5) Education Stress Scale, 6) Social Peer Rejection Measure, and 7) Family Dynamic Environment Scale were used. Scales 2 to 7 had acceptable to high reliability with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.89, 0.91, 0.75, 0.87, 0.89 and 0.91, respectively. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression. Results: The sample’s mean depression score was 19.12 (SD = 8.20) where 33% had depression (N = 104). Rumination, Type D personality, academic stress, peer rejection, and  family environment significantly explained 46% of the variance of depression (R2 = 0.46, F5,310= 53.46, P < 0.001). Type D personality served as a strongest predictor (b = 0.32, P < 0.001), followed by rumination (b = 0.31, P < 0.001), academic stress (b = 0.10, P < 0.05), and peer rejection (b = 0.10, P < 0.05). However, family environment was not a significant predictor. Conclusion: Depression was positively associated with type D personality, rumination, academic stress, and peer rejection, but not family environment. School based mental health program for prevention and management of depression for high school students could be developed. Keywords: high school students, depression, psychosocial factors, Bhutan


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