Srinakharinwirot Science Journal 2022-06-30T11:29:40+00:00 Srinakharinwirot Science Journal Open Journal Systems Srinakharinwirot Science Journal Personal Identification using the Distance and Triangle between the Metacarpophalangeal Joints 2022-06-30T11:29:39+00:00 Siwa Srathongkro Yongyut Kaewjumras Wanasanan Ngamsapmanee Nuttakrit Somdock Nalita Sawangjit Bhanupol Klongratog <p>Personal identification using the distance among the metacarpophalangeal joints (MCPs) was presented in this study. The system was developed to specify the dorsal hand patterns. Firstly, the dorsal hand images were taken for the subjects via an infrared camera. Secondly, the dorsal hand images were converted to grayscale and binary images using image processing techniques. After that, the distance of the MCPs was measured by various the dorsal hand images including index to middle, middle to ring, ring to little, and index to little of the dorsal hand. In addition, the triangle areas between index to middle, middle to ring, ring to little, and index to little of the dorsal hand were used to specify the dorsal hand patterns. The result of the distance and the triangle area of the MCPS can be used to identify a person because of the difference of distance and the triangle area of the MCPs of each person.<strong> </strong></p><p> </p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Effects of a Teacher Development Program on Science Teachers’ Conceptions of Inquiry-based Teaching and Teaching Quality 2022-06-30T11:29:39+00:00 Jannapha Soonjan Kreetha kaewkhong <p>This research explores the conceptual change of inquiry-based teaching and the teaching quality of 12 Thai elementary science teachers who participated in a teacher professional development program. We developed the teacher professional development program focusing on helping teachers understand how to teach science using inquiry-based methods. The 12 volunteer Thai elementary science teachers were asked to participate in the program which consisted of 15 activities based on the five essential features of inquiry teaching. Each activity had a specific objective, the teachers were trained by doing activities designed by considering the five essential features of inquiry teaching. The teachers ‘conceptions of inquiry-based teaching were investigated at the beginning and finishing of the workshop by 18 open-ended questions on teaching scenarios developed by researchers. Besides, their lesson plans and teaching video clips were also determined with the Science Teacher Inquiry Rubric (STIR) to indicate teaching quality and level of inquiry. From the results, we found that teachers’ conceptions of inquiry-based teaching were significantly correlated to their teaching quality.</p><p> </p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Welding Fume Reduction in Flux Cored Wire Arc Welding using Nanoparticles-Shielding Gas Mixture 2022-06-30T11:29:39+00:00 Isaratat Phung-on <p>Welding fume could be harmful to welders and operators, especially to the respiratory system. In general, welding fumes could form in various types of oxides such as Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub> or MnFe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>4</sub>. There have been various methods for both extracting and reducing fume formation but with some limitations. This research introduced a novel development by using a mixture of ZnO nanoparticles mixed into the shielding gas stream in the flux-cored wire arc welding process. By utilizing the photocatalytic reaction producing free electrons to neutralize the oxide metal, the fume formation would be suppressed. The system was designed as add-on equipment compiling with the existing operating parameters. Nanoparticle could reduce fume generation rate from 0.84 to 0.58 g/min (30.28%) and 0.66 to 0.46 g/min (29.65%) at shielding gas flow rate of 25 and 15 L/min, consecutively. Its robustness was applicable for %fume generation rate reduction at 29.95% and 21.33%, at welding current of 200 A and 120 A. The weld performance test conformed to the requirements of ASME BPVC.IX. Microstructure and chemical composition showed no evidence of crack and nanoparticle residue. This fume reduction utilizing nanoparticles is effective without a detrimental effect on weld performance. There is only a little adjustment during installation. Owing to its design as a refillable canister, it is convenient for the same usable duration as 1 cylinder of CO<sub>2</sub> gas.</p><p> </p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Effects of Flood Pulse on the Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Fish Diversity in the Raphiphat Canal, Thailand 2022-06-30T11:29:39+00:00 Ruthairat Siriwattanarat Weerawich Wongroj Arin Ngamniyom <p>This paper analyzes the effects of flood pulse on the spatial and temporal dynamics of fish diversity in the Raphiphat canal, Thailand, resulting from a study carried out in the period from May to<strong> </strong>December 2021. The fish samples were collected every month, covering the pre-flooded season (May to August)<strong> </strong>and the flooded season (September to December) on the rainy seasons at eight sampling stations. Fish were caught<strong> </strong>using cast nets with a mesh size of 1.5 cm and 2.5 cm, and gill nets with a mesh size of ¾ inch,<strong> </strong>1.5 inches, and 2 inches. All data were analyzed to find out the fish diversity indices. A multivariate<strong> </strong>method of cluster analysis was used for data analysis. The result indicated that there was a total<strong> </strong>of 4,998 individual fish representing 33 species belonging to 25 genera and 14 families. The four most dominant fish varieties in the Raphiphat canal in terms of amount were<strong> </strong><em>Puntioplites proctozystron, Barbonymus gonionotus, Cyclocheilichthys enoplos, </em>and<strong> </strong><em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> which were distributed at all research stations. For temporal dynamics of fish diversity, the average species richness was 15.74±7.18. The highest species richness was found in August, and the lowest species richness was found in June. The H´ index 2.46±0.47 was found in December to May. The relative evenness index (J´) was 0.91±0.03 and varied between December and May. The cluster analysis each month in the Raphiphat canal can divide the fish community into 5 clusters.</p><p> </p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Physical and Mechanical Properties of Agar and Carrageenan Film Incorporated with Hydrolysate-Konjac Glucomannan 2022-06-30T11:29:39+00:00 Thongkorn Ploypetchara Ubolwanna Srimongkoluk Chaleeda Borompichaichartkul Supaporn Lekhavat <p>The effect of combine-polysaccharides ratio on the properties of edible film was studied. The objective of this research is to investigate the physical and mechanical properties of polysaccharide film that incorporated with hydrolysate-konjac glucomannan. Film samples containing agar (0-100%), carrageenan (0-50%), or hydrolysate-konjac glucomannan (HKG) (0-50%) at different calculated ratios of mixing using mixture design and adding glycerol as a plasticizer were prepared. The results showed that viscosity of the film solution was decreased while adding HKG. The addition of HKG could increase thickness and moisture content but could decrease the transparency of the film. The result showed that the highest water vapor permeability (WVP) came from film which contained mixture of HKG and carrageenan (1.22x10<sup>-5 </sup>g mm m<sup>-2 </sup>s<sup>-1 </sup>Pa<sup>-1</sup>). The lowest WVP came from agar, while the mixture of HKG and carrageenan had the lowest oxygen permeability (OP) (5.84x10<sup>-8</sup> mm cm<sup>3 </sup>m<sup>-2 </sup>s<sup>-1 </sup>Pa<sup>-1</sup>). The mechanical properties in terms of tensile strength and load at the maximum of the film were decreased as addition of HKG but were increased with agar adding. The elongation at break was increased with the mixture of HKG and carrageenan, and the mixture HKG, carrageenan, and agar (32.42%), respectively. In conclusion, the calculated mixture ratio from mixture design contributed to different physical and mechanical properties of the polysaccharide film, depending on their concentrations and type of polysaccharide in the film solution. The mixture of HKG, carrageenan, and agar could be applied for food packaging. However, the barrier behavior of the film need to be improved in future research.</p><p> </p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) The Nature of Science in New Science Learning Indicators of Thai Basic Education Core Curriculum: Documentary Research 2022-06-30T11:29:39+00:00 Triwit Pinkheaw Tepkanya Promkatkeaw Pinit Khumwong <p>According to the revision of Thai science curriculum, the nature of science (NOS) learning strand which used to be explicit was implicitly embedded in learning indicators of all science learning strands. The purpose of this study is to analyze concepts of NOS integrated in learning indicators of science learning strands revised in B.E. 2560 (A.D. 2017) in the Basic Education Core Curriculum of lower secondary level. This research conducted content analysis of learning indicators in the curriculum by using the NOS analytical framework. The results showed that only 6 out of 15 concepts of NOS were integrated in learning indicators, but covered all 3 aspects of NOS including scientific worldview, scientific inquiry, and scientific enterprise. However, the learning indicators mostly emphasized on the integration of the concepts of NOS in the aspect of scientific worldview and scientific inquiry, but hardly found the integration in the aspect of scientific enterprise. 110 learning indicators out of a total of 147 indicators in the lower secondary school were integrated the concepts of NOS. The most percent of numbers of indicators integrating the concepts were at 9<sup>th</sup> grade. The results of the analysis showed that NOS is still an important component of the revised science curriculum. However, many NOS concepts were missing from the curriculum. In the curriculum manual, therefore, there should be the suggestions for the connection between science learning indicators and effective methods for teaching NOS.</p><p> </p> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Preparation and Characterization of phenytoin Sodium-Controlled Release Solid Dosage Forms 2022-06-30T11:29:40+00:00 Supavadee Boontha Kamchai Saepang Supang Khondee Tasana Pitaksuteepong <p>This research aimed to prepare and characterize phenytoin sodium-controlled release solid dosage forms. Phenytoin sodium and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) were mixed at the ratio of 1:0 - 1:3 using physical mixing (PM) and solid dispersion (SD) methods. Compared with the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum of phenytoin sodium and HPMC, the spectrum of the obtained mixture using the PM method demonstrated that there were no significant interactions between phenytoin and HPMC. However, the presence of interactions between phenytoin sodium and HPMC was detected when using the SD method. Disintegration time (DT) of all prepared capsules using various ratios of HPMC was less than 15 min. For the <em>in vitro</em> release of capsules, phenytoin released from phenytoin incorporated with HPMC was more than that from non-incorporated phenytoin. Phenytoin released from the formulated capsule with HPMC was increased with increasing of the amount of HPMC. Two pre-formulations (phenytoin sodium and HPMC= 1:2 and 1:3) were used to formulate tablets. Both tablet formulations met the requirement criteria for thickness, hardness, and weight variation (USP41). For the <em>in vitro </em>release of tablets, phenytoin released from the formulated tablet was lower than 5%. This was due to the formulated tablet remaining a viscous white gel in the dissolution basket at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, incorporating phenytoin with HPMC might be suitable for sustained phenytoin release in oral administered tablets. However, DT will be increased and the appropriate ratio of phenytoin sodium and HPMC will be investigated in further studies.<strong></strong></p><br /> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Self-Assembled Bismuth Oxide Microrods Prepared by a Facile Chemical Method 2022-06-30T11:29:40+00:00 Komkrich Chokprasombat Upsorn Boonyang <p>Bismuth oxides (Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) are of interest because of their suitable band gaps for photocatalytic activity. Herein, a-Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> microrods were synthesized by a facile chemical method, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). The results showed that the particles were rod-shaped with lengths in the range of 5-10 mm. Crystalline structure of the particles was monoclinic, and the band gap was around 2.88 eV. When citric acid was used in the synthesis, the bismuth oxide microrods can self-assemble into the hierarchical flower-like structures leading to the alteration of band gap. This self-assembled a-Bi<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> microstructure can be employed as a photocatalyst with alterable band gap.</p><br /> 2022-06-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)