Science Essence Journal Srinakharinwirot Science Journal Faculty of Science en-US Science Essence Journal 2985-0290 Second-Order Confirmatory Factor Analysis of 21st Century Mathematics Teaching Predicament among Secondary Mathematics Teachers in Secondary Educational Service Area Office Lopburi <p>This study aimed to anlyze the second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the 21<sup>st</sup> century mathematics teaching predicament (MTP) among secondary mathematics teachers in Secondary Educational Service Area Office Lopburi (SEAOL). The study uses a quantitative research approach and the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework to examine teaching, learning and knowledge theory. In the first semester of 2022, sixty secondary school mathematics instructors were chosen by multi-stage random selection from the SEAOL. A 0.94-confidence questionnaire was used to study mathematics teaching predicament. The data were analyzed using second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) with the AMOS program. The results of the study showed that the 21<sup>st</sup> century MTP model had a good fit with the data (= 11.852, <em>df</em> = 10, = 1.185, <em>p</em>-value = 0.295, <em>GFI </em>= 0.952, <em>TLI </em>= 0.963, <em>CFI</em> = 0.982, <em>NFI</em> = 0.906 and <em>RMSEA</em> = 0.056) with technological capability, knowledge of content, variety of teaching methods, requirements for using technology, school technology support, the narrative teaching method, and the use of technological tools to influence mathematics teaching predicament, with influence values of 0.85, 0.73, 0.67, 0.63, 0.31, 0.08, and 0.00, respectively. The research showed how each element affected these secondary school math instructors. The least influential factor was the use of technology. The results showed that, to improve education, educators should develop and apply new technology in the classroom.</p> Khemjira Tiengyoo Sayun Sotaro Sermsri Thaithae Copyright (c) 2024 Science Essence Journal 2024-04-27 2024-04-27 40 1 1 17 The Effect of Space Environments on the Material Degradations: The Current Understanding and Proposed Synergistic Effects <p>The objective of this research was to study the effect of micrometeoroids (MM) and space debris (SD), atomic oxygen (AO) and vacuum on space material degradation. The synergistic effect was also proposed inferences based on the comprehensive findings of prior researches. The research was carried out in four steps including article review design, conducting review, collecting and analyzing information and article structuring and writing. The results showed that MM and SD impacted on somewhere of spacecraft, leading to delamination, crack, or fracture. Outgassing is a key degradation existing in vacuum environments, especially on polymeric-based materials. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) performed the lowest outgassing rate comparative to Polybenzimidazole (PBI) and Polyimide (PI). AO generates from dissociation of oxygen gas in low earth orbit (LEO). Thermal AO broke apart the covalent bonds and formed volatile products. Additionally, AO reacted to some metals, causing several kinds of metal oxides. The second effect was erosion caused by hyperthermal AO. Erosion yields of polymers were higher than metals because of mechanical and chemical properties differentiation. The synergistic effect among two environmental conditions would further contribute to the degradation of space materials. In this review article, the mutual effect of MM and SD, outgassing and AO was proposed. MM and SD would impact on space material and originate the delamination and/or abrasion on the surface. Hyperthermal AO would erode and reveal material’s surface and then, enlarge the damaged surface area. Thermal AO accelerated oxidation reaction and volatile products. Moreover, vacuum would enhance outgassing and release many types of gases. The proposed mechanism should be validated in the future.</p> Tosapolporn Pornpibunsompob Sittha Saidarasamoot Copyright (c) 2024 Science Essence Journal 2024-05-08 2024-05-08 40 1 18 36 Molecular cloning and tissue expression analysis of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in response to pathogen infections <p>Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a cytokine that plays essential roles in various physiological pathways, including inflammation and immune responses to microbial infections. Therefore, in this study, we isolated and characterized the full-length TNF gene in <em>Macrobrachium rosenbergii</em> (<em>MrTNF</em>) and investigated the expression of <em>MrTNF</em> against <em>Aeromonas hydrophila</em> and <em>Macrobrachium rosenbergii</em> nodavirus (<em>Mr</em>NV) infections. The full-length cDNA of <em>MrTNF</em> had 1830 base pairs (bp), consisting of a 5’ untranslated region (5’-UTR) of 396 bp and a 3’-UTR of 54 bp. <em>MrTNF</em> contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1380 bp, encoding 459 amino acid residues. The structural analysis of <em>Mr</em>TNF revealed a transmembrane domain from positions 21 to 43 and a conserved TNF domain from positions 324 to 446. The <em>Mr</em>TNF protein exhibited a high identity of 91.88% compared with <em>Mn</em>TNF from <em>Macrobrachium nipponense</em>. The phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that <em>Mr</em>TNF was closely related to <em>Mn</em>TNF from <em>M. nipponense</em>. The expression level of <em>MrTNF</em> mRNA in healthy prawns exhibited high expression in the intestine, muscle, and stomach. <em>MrTNF</em> was significantly up-regulated in hemocytes, muscle, intestine, and stomach upon <em>A. hydrophila</em> infection. Furthermore, <em>MrTNF</em> in muscle, gills, and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated upon <em>Mr</em>NV challenge. Molecular docking study indicated that <em>Mr</em>TNF may interact with the protruding (P)-domain of <em>Mr</em>NV triggering a response in the innate immune system of prawns after viral infection. These findings suggest that <em>MrTNF</em> plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of freshwater crustaceans, particularly in response to Gram-negative bacteria and viral infections.</p> Phornchatra Suksangiamkul Chanitcha Choolert Natchaphon Ngueanngam Phongthana Pasookhush Akapon Vaniksampanna Siwaporn Longyant Parin Chaivisuthangkura Copyright (c) 2024 Science Essence Journal 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 40 1 37 60 Effect of the AgO2 doping on the superconducting material of YAgxBa2Cu3O7-δ, Y3AgxBa5Cu8O18- δ and Y7AgxBa11Cu18O40-δ <p>The Y123, Y358, and Y7-11-18, and AgO<sub>2</sub> composite was predominantly synthesized through a solid-state reaction. As the Ag content increased, both the critical temperature and the superconducting compound exhibited enhancement. The non-superconducting compound segregated into two distinct groups: BaCuO<sub>2</sub> (Im-3m) and Ba<sub>2</sub>Cu<sub>3</sub>O<sub>6</sub> (Pccm). While Ag doping did not impact the <em>c</em> lattice parameter value, it did alter the <em>a</em> and <em>b</em> lattice parameters in Y358 and Y7-11-18. Y123 demonstrated the most stable anisotropic parameters. Additionally, Ag doping did not influence the increase in oxygen content. Among the samples, Y123 exhibited the highest <em>Cu<sup>3+</sup>/Cu<sup>2+</sup></em> ratio, while Y7-11-18 displayed the most deficient parameters, contributing to a higher critical temperature. The heat reaction for all samples indicated an endothermic reaction, resulting in a decrease in the samples' melting point. Furthermore, compared to undoped samples, Ag doping enhanced the surface homogeneity.</p> Somkid Sinwittayarak Supphadate Sujinnapram Tunyanop Nilkamjon Sermsuk Ratreng Pongkaew Udomsamuthirun Suppanyou Meakniti Thitipong Kruaehong Copyright (c) 2024 Science Essence Journal 2024-05-15 2024-05-15 40 1 61 73