พหุกรณีศึกษา: การรับรู้เกี่ยวกับความรู้ความสามารถบูรณาการเทคโนโลยีในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะและการปฏิบัติการสอนของครูวิทยาศาสตร์ระดับมัธยมศึกษาตอนต้นในโรงเรียนขยายโอกาสทางการศึกษา

กอบวิทย์ พิริยะวัฒน์, พงษ์ประพันธ์ พงศ์โสภณ, พัฒนี จันทรโรทัย

Abstract


บทคัดย่อ

การศึกษารายพหุกรณีนี้มีวัตถุประสงค์เพื่อศึกษาการรับรู้และการปฏิบัติการสอนเกี่ยวกับความรู้ความสามารถบูรณาการเทคโนโลยีในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะของครูวิทยาศาสตร์ระดับมัธยมศึกษาตอนต้น จำนวน 6 คน จากโรงเรียนขยายโอกาสทางการศึกษา 3 แห่ง สังกัดสำนักงานเขตพื้นที่การ ศึกษาประถมศึกษาแห่งหนึ่งในภาคกลาง เก็บรวบรวมข้อมูลด้วยการสัมภาษณ์ การทำแบบวัดและการสังเกต ตลอดจนการวิเคราะห์แผนการจัดการเรียนรู้ โดยในงานวิจัยนี้ได้ใช้กรอบแนวคิด TPACK ของ Koehler and Mishra (2009) โดยศึกษาเพียง 3 องค์ประกอบ ได้แก่ ความรู้ในเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะ (CK) ความรู้ความสามารถในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะ (PCK) และความรู้ความสามารถบูรณาการเทคโนโลยีในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะ (TPACK) ซึ่งจากงานวิจัยบ่งชี้ว่าสามารถสะท้อนให้เห็นจากการปฏิบัติได้อย่างชัดเจน วิเคราะห์ข้อมูลโดยใช้การวิเคราะห์แบบ constant-comparative method ซึ่งแบ่งวิเคราะห์ข้อมูลเป็น 2 ขั้นตอน คือ ขั้นที่ 1 วิเคราะห์ภายในกรณี (within-case analysis) และขั้นที่ 2 วิเคราะห์ระหว่างกรณี (cross-case analysis) แล้วนำมาสังเคราะห์เป็นข้อสรุปและตรวจสอบความน่าเชื่อถือของข้อมูลด้วยเทคนิคแบบสามเส้า ผลการวิจัยพบว่า ครูที่เป็นพลวิจัยมีการรับรู้ว่าตนมีความรู้ในเนื้อหา วิชาวิทยาศาสตร์ในระดับชั้นมัธยมศึกษาตอนต้นเป็นอย่างดี แต่ยังประสบปัญหาด้านความรู้ความสามารถในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะที่เน้นการเรียนการสอนแบบสืบเสาะหาความรู้ และประสบปัญหาด้านความรู้ความสามารถบูรณาการเทคโนโลยีในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะ โดยครูสามารถใช้เทคโนโลยีในการเรียนการสอนวิทยาศาสตร์ได้บ้าง ส่วนใหญ่ในลักษณะของสื่อการสอน แต่ยังไม่สามารถใช้เทคโนโลยีเพื่อส่งเสริมการเรียนการสอนแบบสืบเสาะหาความรู้ได้ ส่งผลต่อการปฏิบัติการสอนของครู โดยพบว่าครูเลือกวิธีการสอนแบบบรรยายและไม่ค่อยได้นำเทคโนโลยีมาใช้ในการเรียนการสอน เนื่องจากไม่สามารถบูรณาการความรู้ทั้ง 3 องค์ประกอบดังกล่าวเข้าด้วยกันได้ ข้อเสนอแนะที่ได้จากการวิจัยนี้ คือ แนวทางในการพัฒนาความรู้ความสามารถบูรณาการเทคโนโลยีในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะของครูวิทยาศาสตร์ระดับมัธยมศึกษาตอนต้น ที่ต้องคำนึงถึงบริบทของครู ปัญหาในการจัดการเรียนการสอนและความต้องการในการพัฒนาตามสภาพการปฏิบัติงานจริง ซึ่งจะเป็นประโยชน์ต่อการออกแบบโปรแกรมพัฒนาวิชาชีพครูและการปรับการจัดการเรียนรู้ของหลักสูตรผลิตครูในอนาคตต่อไป

คำสำคัญ: การรับรู้ของครู  ความรู้ความสามารถบูรณาการเทคโนโลยีในการสอนเนื้อหาวิชาเฉพาะ   ครูวิทยาศาสตร์ระดับมัธยมศึกษาตอนต้น

 

Abstract

The multiple case study aimed to examine the perceptions and teaching practices in regard to Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) of six lower secondary science teachers from three Opportunity Expansion Schools under Primary Educational Service Area Office in central region of Thailand. Interviews, test, classroom observation and the analysis of lesson plan were used as sources of data collection. Using Koehler and Mishra’s TPACK framework (2009), three components were focused, suggested by literature, to be well reflected and measurable in classroom practice; Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Content Know-ledge (PCK) and Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) in this research. Data were analyzed using constant comparative method: Step 1 within-case analysis and Step 2 cross-case analysis. The meaning was discerned and determined the credibility by data triangulation technique. The result revealed that most of teachers perceived that they had adequate content knowledge. However, they had problems in Pedagogical Content Knowledge on some the essential features of the inquiry-based approach. In addition, they felt they did not know what and how technology could enhance inquiry-based teaching. The teachers were more likely to use technology in teaching science as instructional media consistent with their practice. It was found that teachers had chosen lecturing as a main teaching method and rarely used technology in the teaching since they could not integrate the three elements of TPACK.  The findings suggested that professional development model for TPACK should be designed and implemented by taking into account the context, constraints regarding learning and teaching and their needs and motivation.

Keywords: Teacher’s perceptions; Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK); Lower secondary science Teachers


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